## Minkowski Diagrams and Important Basics You Should Know

Here you will learn all about Minkowski diagrams, which are used to visualize special relativity (e.g. length contraction, time dilation).

Time dilation, length contraction and space-time diagrams.

Level 3 requires the basics of vector calculus, differential and integral calculus. Suitable for undergraduates and high school students.

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Lesson ## Minkowski Diagrams and Important Basics You Should Know

Here you will learn all about Minkowski diagrams, which are used to visualize special relativity (e.g. length contraction, time dilation).

## Related Illustrations

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Derivation ## Time Dilation By Using a Light Clock

With the help of a light clock, the deceleration of time in the moving system can be derived by using only Pythagoras' theorem.

## Related formulas

Formula ## Gamma Factor (Lorentz Term)

`$$ \gamma ~=~ \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 ~-~ \frac{v^2}{c^2}}} $$`Formula ## Time Dilation (Proper Time, Velocity)

`$$ \Delta t' ~=~ \frac{1}{ \sqrt{1 ~-~ \frac{v^2}{c^2}} } \, \Delta t $$`Formula ## Length Contraction (Length, Velocity)

`$$ \Delta x' ~=~ \sqrt{1 ~-~ \frac{\class{blue}{v}^2}{c^2}} \, \Delta x $$`Formula ## Relativistic Velocity Addition

`$$ u ~=~ \frac{u' + \class{blue}{v} }{ 1 ~+~ \frac{u' \, \class{blue}{v} }{ c^2 } } $$`Formula ## Relativistic Energy-Momentum Relation

`$$ W ~=~ \sqrt{W_{0}^2 ~+~ (p \, c)^2} $$`Formula ## Mass Defect

`$$ \class{brown}{\Delta m} ~=~ Z \, \class{brown}{m_{\text p}} ~+~ N \, \class{brown}{m_{\text n}} ~-~ \class{brown}{m} $$`Formula ## Mass Defect (Binding Energy)

`$$ W ~=~ \class{brown}{\Delta m} \, c^2 $$`## Related Illustrations

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Lesson ## Lorentz Transformation as Rotation or Lorentz Boost

Here you will learn about the properties of the Lorentz transformation as well as rotations in space and Lorentz boosts.

## Related Illustrations