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Illustration Charged Plate Capacitor with Dielectric Material

A charged plate capacitor with dielectric
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A plate capacitor with rectangular capacitor plates, which have an area \( A \). One plate is positively charged and carries the charge \( + Q \) and the other plate is charged with the same magnitude \(|Q|\) of charge but with negative charge \( - Q \). The distance between the two plates is \( d \). There is also a dielectric (e.g. air, glass, etc.) between the plates, which can affect for example the capacitance of the capacitor. The dielectric is characterized by the dielectric constant \( \varepsilon_{\text r} \).

Between the capacitor plates there is - because of the difference in charge - an electrical voltage \( U \).