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Illustration Circuit with a Practical Voltage Source

Circuit with a Practical Voltage Source
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A practical (real-world) voltage source is characterized by the fact that the voltage \(U_0\) given by the voltage source does not correspond to the voltage \(U \) at the load resistor \(R\), because the voltage source has an internal resistance \(R_{\text i} \). Using the Kirchoff's and Ohm's laws, the voltage at the load resistor is given by the following equation:$$ U = U_0 - R_{\text i} \, I $$