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Plate capacitor with sketched electric field lines running homogeneously from one plate to the other. The equipotential lines (i.e. lines on which the potential energy of a test charge is equal) are exactly perpendicular to the electric field lines of a homogeneous E-field.
As an example, some equipotential lines with potentials \(\varphi_0\) to \(\varphi_5\) were sketched, where the electric voltage between the capacitor plates corresponds to the potential difference \( U = \varphi_5 - \varphi_0\).