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If a light beam from a medium (e.g. air) with refractive index \(n_1\) enters a medium (e.g. water) with refractive index \(n_2\) at angle \(\alpha_1\) (between the vertical and incident beam), the refractive angle \(\alpha_2\) (between the vertical and outgoing beam) is determined by the Snell's law:$$ n_1 \, \sin(\alpha_1) ~=~ n_2 \, \sin(\alpha_2) $$