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Illustration Electric Dipole in a Homogeneous E-Field

Electric Dipole in a Homogeneous E-Field
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Between two capacitor plates there is a homogeneous electric field \(E\). Now, if an electric dipole (e.g., a molecule with a positive and negative charge) is placed in the homogeneous E-field with the distance \(r\) of the charges, then the negative charge experiences a force \(F_1\) toward the positive capacitor plate (against the E-field) and the positive charge experiences a force \(F_2\) toward the negative capacitor plate (along the E-field). So the dipole rotates in the field until it is exactly parallel to the electric field lines, because its energy then becomes minimal.