Physical vapor deposition (PVD) - is a vacuum-based deposition technique in which a material is vaporized and then deposited onto the substrate surface.
In this deposition technique, the material (e.g. gold) that serves as the layer is heated so that it is brought to boiling point. The material thus becomes a gas and rises to the top where the substrate (e.g. silicon) is attached. Due to a lower temperature there, the gas condenses on the substrate surface. In this way, a thin layer is formed.
Instead of evaporating the material by means of a large electric current, this can also be done with an electron beam (Electron-beam physical vapor deposition) or laser beams (Pulsed laser deposition).