## Photolithography: How to Make a Circuit in 7 Easy Steps

Here you will learn how integrated circuits in semiconductor technology are manufactured step by step using lithography technique.

Both your table and your coffee cup are (usually) in a solid state. Solid state physics studies all properties of solids, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, its atomic structure and other physical quantities.

Here you will learn how integrated circuits in semiconductor technology are manufactured step by step using lithography technique.

` $$ j ~=~ \frac{n \, e^2 \, \tau}{m_{\text e}} \, E $$ `

` $$ A_{\text H} ~=~ \frac{ \class{red}{p} \,{\mu_{\text +}}^2 ~-~ \class{blue}{n} \, {\mu_{\text -}}^2}{e \, (\class{red}{p} \, \mu_{\text +} ~+~ \class{blue}{n} \, \mu_{\text -})^2} $$ `

` $$ U_\text{H} ~=~ v \, \class{violet}{B} \, h $$ `

` $$ f ~=~ \frac{|q| \, \class{violet}{B}}{2\pi \, \class{brown}{m}} $$ `

` $$ U_{\text H} ~=~ A_{\text H} \, \frac{I \, \class{violet}{B}}{d} $$ `

Explanation of what the Hall effect is, how exactly the Hall voltage is generated and how you can calculate it and the Hall constant.

` $$ U_\text{H} ~=~ \frac{1}{n \, q} ~ \frac{I \, \class{violet}{B}}{d} $$ `

Learn what the Hall effect is, how the Hall voltage is generated in a current-carrying bar in a magnetic field, and how this voltage is derived.

` $$ D(W) ~=~ \frac{L}{\pi} \, \left(\frac{2m}{\hbar^2}\right)^{1/2} \, \frac{1}{\sqrt{W}} $$ `

` $$ D(W) ~=~ \frac{V}{2\pi^2} \, \left(\frac{2m}{\hbar^2}\right)^{3/2} \, \sqrt{W} $$ `

` $$ D ~=~ \frac{A}{\pi} \, \frac{2m}{\hbar^2} $$ `

Here you will learn how to derive the 1d, 2d, and 3d density of states of a free electron gas from the k-volume and the dispersion relation.